Recent article with the title “GDF5 induces TBX3 in a concentration dependent manner – on a gold nanoparticle gradient.” published by members of RESTORE (Heliyon, published online 2020 Jun in Cell press). It was shown that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 or bone morphogene protein 14, BMP14) induced condensed cell aggregates at a specific particle density during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into the chondrocyte lineage. T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3) was detected specifically in those condensed aggregates. GDF5 is important for joint formation and digit numbers during development and osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility is mediated by polymorphism in GDF5. Our findings that a specific GDF5 density is supportive for TBX3 induction and budding formation in c-iPSCs differentiation may be utilized for unraveling disease mechanisms related to OA or for advanced therapy medicinal products.
More information: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04133